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  1. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, and Donaldson MS, Editors. Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press. Washington D.C. 2000.

  2. Klevens et al. Estimating Health Care-Associated Infections and Deaths in U.S. Hospitals, 2002. Public Health Reports. March-April 2007. Volume 122.

  3. CDC: Estimates of Healthcare-Associated Infections

  4. Besser, RE. CDC’s Role in Preventing Healthcare Associated Infections

  5. Infections Due to Medical Care in Oregon Hospitals, 2003-2005 Oregon Health Policy and Research. Nov 2006

  6. Zhan C, Miller MR. Excess length of stay, charges, and mortality attributable to medical injuries during hospitalization. JAMA. 2003 Oct 8;290(14):1868-74.

  7. Lucado J, Paez K, Andrews R and Steiner C. Adult Hosptiail Stays with Infections Due to Medical Care, 2007. Statistical Brief #94 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project AHRQ Aug 2010 

  8. Cardo D, Dennehy PH, Halverson P, Fishman N, Kohn M, Murphy CL, Whitley Rj, and the HAI Elimination White Paper Writing Group.  Moving toward elimination of healthcare-associated infections: A call to action. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010 Oct;31:S42–S44.

  9. Frieden TR, Maximizing Infection Prevention in the Next Decade: Defining the Unacceptable. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.  2010 Oct;31:S1–S3. 

  10. Levinson, DR.  Adverse Events in Hospitals:  National Incidence Among Medicare Beneficiaries.  Nov. 2010  OEI-06-09-00090  Download Report

  11. Landrigan CP, Parry GJ, Bones CB, Hackbarth AD, Goldmann DA, Sharek PJ. Temporal trends in rates of patient harm resulting from medical care. N Engl J Med. 2010 Nov 25;363(22):2124-34.   

  12. Classen DC, Resar R, Griffin F, Federico F, Frankel T, Kimmel N, Whittington JC, Frankel A, Seger A and James BC.    ‘Global Trigger Tool’ Shows That Adverse Events In Hospitals May Be Ten Times Greater Than Previously Measured.  Health Affairs.  April 2011 vol. 30 no. 4 581-589.

  13. Umscheid CA, Mitchell MD, Doshi JA, Agarwal R, Williams K, Brennan PJ. Estimating the proportion of healthcare-associated infections that are reasonably preventable and the related mortality and costs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011 Feb;32(2):101-14.